Tree Profile: Yew (taxus baccata)

Tree Profile: Yew (taxus baccata)

Yew – Taxus baccata

Few western European trees are as enigmatic as the Yew. Dark, brooding and sometimes eery, each Yew tree very much has its own personality.



The Yew (Taxus baccata) is an evergreen, needle bearing conifer- but a strange one. Instead of wooden cones, it shelters its seed in a bright red, soft and slimy fruit cortex that takes the shape of a cup (Baccata = cup). The seeds, hidden within the ‘cup, along with all other parts of the tree except for the arils, are highly poisonous.

Yews are dioecious; female and male flowers appear on different trees, but only the female flower-bearing tree produces the fruits. They reach sexual maturity between 15-30 years of age, pretty young, considering their potential lifespan! It is difficult to measure the exact age of a Yew tree because most of them become hollow as they age, which means we can’t count tree rings. But in Britain and Europe, there are several, estimated to be between 2000 and 4000 years old!

As trees go, their height is not that impressive. Yews only grow to about 10-20 m tall, but they can develop an admirable circumference of more than 6 m. Unlike most conifers, they do not produce any resin.

Yews have a dark appearance, and they love shady spots. But they tolerate the sun if they were exposed to it from the start.

Yew of If d'Estry, Normandy

Roi.dagobert, CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons


As an evergreen with a seemingly infinite lifespan and a somewhat dark, mysterious Gestalt, it is not surprising that Yews have been linked to the realm of the Dead. In Britain, the oldest Yews are found in cemeteries, often in association with a sacred spring. Britain’s oldest one is the Yew of Fortingall, in Perth, Scotland, believed to be some 3000 years old. However, its age is difficult to verify since it is hollow, and young shoots that grow from the centre, fuse with older ones, thus constantly rejuvenating itself.

In the runic alphabet, the Yew is associated with Eiwhaz Rune, which signifies the shortest day of the year, the eve of the winter solstice. It symbolizes the dying Sun but also its rebirth, since Yews possess this magic power of rejuvenation. Yews cast the dark, silent cape of eternity over the departed and take care of their souls in the afterworld until the time of their rebirth has come.

Thus, Yews are symbolic of life and death, seen as complementary forces rather than polar opposites, and joined at the threshold at the beginning and the end of our lives.

Folklore: Sleeping under a Yew tree was thought to induce prophetic dreams and offer a glimpse beyond the veil.



Properties and uses

Yew BerryA couple of thousand years ago, Yews were common throughout Europe and Britain. But they are slow-growing trees that were decimated for the sake of war. Yews were the primary source-wood for longbows – which, before the invention of gunpowder, were the most common weapon of war. Even today, Yew bows are used for making longbows for archery. In medieval times, Yews were planted in and around castle grounds to ensure a steady supply.
The wood, which is both strong and elastic, is superbly suited for this purpose. Archaeological evidence has shown that it has been used to make weapons since prehistoric times. Palaeolithic spears and arrowheads made of Yew have been found in a marl pit in southern England. The arrowheads had been dipped in an arrow poison made of Yew, Hellebore and Hemlock to make them extra lethal. Yews alkaloids first stimulate, then slow the heart rate, causing the victim to fall into a coma and die within an hour and a half. The oldest such spear, some 150 000 years old, was still stuck between the ribs of a mammoth carcass.

By the 16th century, Yews were almost extinct. But, they were saved by the invention of gunpowder which was invented right around that time, allowing Yew populations to recover.


Medicinal uses:

In recent times, Yews were in the news for saving lives. A compound found in the Pacific Yew, Taxus brevifolia, was discovered to have cytostatic properties, capable of inhibiting cancerous growth. But both, the Pacific Yew and its habitat are threatened. A single tree only yields 3 kg of bark, containing only 1g of Taxol, the sought-after active compound. Taxol proved highly effective in chemotherapy for treating breast- and ovarian cancer, and thus was in high demand. Given the slow growth and endangered status of the trees, the situation was precarious. Scientists were struggling to find a way to synthesize Taxol from other sources. But eventually, the breakthrough came in the 1990s. Scientists had managed to create Taxol molecules from Taxus baccata, the European Yew, which is a far more common species.

Thus, the Yew has held true to its ancient promise as a harbinger of both death and life.

The Cultural History of Grapes

The Cultural History of Grapes

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

Grapes are one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. But they have far more uses than ordinarily meet the palate. There are at least 8000 cultivated varieties of grapes, most of which are grown in the Northern Hemisphere.

Name: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera)
Family: Vitaceae
Synonyms: Grapevine, Vigne, Weintrauben, Rebstock



Grapes are one of the most important agricultural crops in the world. From New Zealand to California, Chile, South Africa and of course, their traditional turf around the Mediterranean Basin, grapes are cultivated in Mediterranean climate zones around the world. Grapevines are surprisingly hardy. They can live on next to nothing. They thrive on poor soils, so long as they are well-draining and don’t mind the heat. The only thing they won’t survive is a cold, wet climate.

When left untended, grapevines can reach a height of about 15 m. As climbers, they will scramble up anything that will give them support. In cultivation, they are often trained on wires and cut back after each season so that only the strongest one or two shoots remain.

The gnarly stem forms finely grained, dense wood. The leaves are palmate (hand-shaped) with deeply indented lobes, with very jaggy serrated margins, depending on the variety. In May or June, they begin to flower, forming bunches of tiny, white, 5-petaled flowers with a very delicate and sweet aroma. Alas, this phase does not last long. Soon, bunches of sweet, juicy berries start to develop.

Depending on the variety, their size and colour vary. The smooth-skinned, yellowish-green to reddish, or purple-black berries usually contain 2 seeds each (except for seedless varieties). Vines can be propagated by seed or cutting. Most European stocks are grafted onto American rootstocks due to a devastating blight that nearly destroyed all European vine stocks.

There are also many wild grape species, which also tend to be a meandering bunch. They can sprawl over an extensive area if left undisturbed. Their berries also grow in bunches, but they are much sparser and consist of much smaller berries, which are usually quite tart. Like their cultivated counterparts, the flowers are small and rather inconspicuous.

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The geographical origins of the vine is still a matter of debate. Various wild varieties can be found in different parts of the world, far beyond the Mediterranean. When the Vikings first arrived in the Americas, they called it ‘Vinland’ for the many wild grape varieties they found there. The type now under cultivation in Europe seems to have originated in Georgia. Under the influence of Greek and Roman expansion, it steadily spread west and north from there. Today grape production is prolific in all warm, temperate regions of the world, from Central and Southern Europe, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, US, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, Australia, to New Zealand.

Problems and Pathogens:

Viticulture is a profitable business, which, however, claims a vast amount of land. Wine lovers may appreciate the variety of tastes and textures this diversity produces, but environmentally it is a disaster. Relying almost entirely on just one single cash crop is highly risky. Furthermore, monocultures heavily depend on fertilizers, and pesticides that are highly damaging to the environment.

Various pathogens can threaten grapevines: powdery mildew rots the stalks, shrivels the leaves, splits the grapes and finally kills the vine. Red spider mites suck the sap from the leaf veins, phylloxera vastatrix strikes the roots, and the cochylis moth grub attacks the flowers.

wine press


The story of viticulture is so old that nobody really knows where and when it all started. The Bible mentions that Noah planted a vineyard, but even he was probably not the first. Wine is mentioned in almost every classical text, with records dating back some 6000 years.
It appears as though the Greeks were the first to popularize fermented grape juice, with the Romans soon following suit. As major trading powers, they spread the art of viticulture all around the Mediterranean Basin. By 600 BC, wine was a sought-after export commodity, especially popular with the Gauls who, in time, became expert growers themselves.
However, in the latter half of the 18th century, tragedy struck. By then, grapes had moved to the Americas along with the colonists. The drama unfolded when a North American grower sent some specimen of his rootstocks back to the old world for further study. Unfortunately, the sample he sent was infested with a devastating blight (phylloxera vastatrix) that threatened to wipe out vineyards across Southern Europe. It was a catastrophe of unprecedented proportions.
Luckily, the cure also came from North America – and just in time. A frantic search for a blight-resistant yielded results, and another sample was sent to Europe. Growers started quickly grafted their ancient varieties onto American rootstocks, which saved them. Although the industry took some time to recover, European wine-growers rank again at the top of the international charts.

The wines of Ancient Greece seemed to have been quite a different kind of brew than what we are used to today. Historical records describe a much thicker and heavier beverage that had to be diluted at a ratio of 1:3 for consumption. Typically, it was infused with other substances such as resins, aromatic herbs and even psychotropic plants. It is not surprising then that the Greeks associated wine with Dionysus, the wild, shamanic god of ecstasy. His rites were frenzied and orgiastic. A menacing mob of Maenads, (his priestesses) pursued the god (or his representative) in a feverish hunt and tore him apart. Eventually, an animal (a fawn or fox) replaced the human sacrifice. In time, Dionysus was tamed and re-cast as a chubby, cheerful, but domesticated deity of wheat and wine. The animal sacrifice was replaced with a ritual sharing of ceremonial bread and unadulterated wine during the annual celebration of the Elysian Mystery play.

The Romans equated Dionysus with Bacchus, their god of wine and intoxication, whom they worshipped in much the same manner. In Egyptian mythology, Osiris is the Lord of wine, and Isis fell pregnant with Horus after eating his grapes.

The Hellenized Syrian satirist Lucian recounts a ‘tall satirical tale’ in his ‘True History’. A strange vineyard once grew on the far banks of a river that ran with wine instead of water. The grapevines grew woody stems, but their upper parts sprouted beautiful maidens whose hair was a tangle of leaves and bunches of grapes growing from their fingertips. Their enchanting song lured passers-by. But woe to those who succumbed to their embrace: instantly drunk and unable to escape, the hapless took root and soon sprouted shoots and leaves themselves.

Aphrodisiac associations:

Wine is a divine gift of the gods. In moderate amounts, it lifts the spirit, exhilarates and inspires. It opens the mind and holds the key to the heart and soul. Innumerable works of art have been inspired, and countless adventures started by a spark of its passionate fire. But in excessive quantities, it stupefies and causes delusion. It is a fine line between ecstasy and frenzied oblivion.


Ever tried making homemade wines?


Both red and white wine was traditionally used as a solvent to extract other substances when making medicinal wines and cordials. But various parts of the plant itself were also used as medicine.


Leaves: fresh young leaves
Flowers: dried or fresh flowers
Berries: fresh or dried fruit
Seeds: oil pressed from the seeds


The flowers appear in May/June. The leaves should be picked in spring when they are tender, and the grapes ripen from September onwards (in the Northern Hemisphere).


In the summer, the leaves contain a mixture of sugar and glucose, tartaric acid, potassium bi-tartrate, quercetin, quercitrin, tannin, Amidon, malic acid, gum, inosite, a crystallizable fermentable sugar and oxalate of calcium. In the autumn, they contain more
quercetin and less quercitrin.
Anti-inflammatory, astringent, styptic
An infusion of 1 TSP of fresh, finely cut leaves per cup of water helps with conditions such as rheumatism, gout, nausea and spitting of blood. A preparation known as ‘Papinorum Extract’ made from the leaves is used in Homeopathy to treat epilepsy and inflammatory conditions of the hip. Dried and powdered, leaves were fed to cattle as a treatment for dysentery. A decoction was used to prevent a threatened miscarriage. The astringent properties help to arrest internal and external bleeding, cholera, dropsy, diarrhoea and nausea. The decoction can also be used to treat mouth ulcers and as a douche for vaginal discharge. Grape leaves are used as a treatment for varicose veins and fragile capillaries. For this purpose, leaves are harvested as soon as they turn red and are used either fresh or dried.


Nerve tonic
1tsp of dried flowers per cup of boiling water is said to strengthen neuronal dendrons. It also supports the bone marrow to build red blood cells. The infusion can be used internally or applied externally as a rub to aid neuronal function (even for numbness of the lower limbs)


Malic, tartaric, ascetic ascorbic and racemic acids, alanine, alpha-linolenic acid, alpha-tocopherol, arginine. Oxalic acid in unripe fruits, Ca, P, Fe, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid
Fortifying blood tonic, nourishing, stimulates kidney and liver function and thus aids elimination and inner cleansing, gentle laxative
A grape-fast is a popular method to rid the body of accumulated metabolic waste products and other toxins. 2 kg of grapes should be eaten throughout the day for two weeks, with little or no other food. It is recommended to do a full day fast one day before embarking on this regime. This is an excellent way to stimulate and tone the kidneys and thus to lose weight by releasing water from the tissues. It reduces fat, regulates bowel function, purifies the blood and cleanses the skin. A grape-fast can alleviate rheumatic pain and heartburn, regulate metabolic processes, water retention, oedema and circulatory complaints. Grapes are restorative and nourishing food that aid recovery from anaemia and debilitating conditions. Dehydrated grapes (raisins) have demulcent, nutritious and slightly laxative properties. Grape sugar (fructose) is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. It almost instantly restores energy levels in case of exhaustion and debility.
A grape fast is not recommended for dyspeptic, excitable, hot-blooded individuals, as it may cause palpitations.


Grapevine sap, a watery substance that naturally occurs when pruning the vines, was used as a lotion to treat weak eyes and corneal floaters. It has also been used as a skin lotion. Internally, it acts as a diuretic.


wine press



  • Basketry: The annual shoots are pruned in the winter. They are very flexible and have been used for basketry and broom-making.
  • Cosmetics: A lotion made from the flowers has been used for freckles, while the oil (seeds) is used for making soap.
  • Dyes: The berries yield a purplish colour, which is not durable. The fresh or dried leaves dye yellow.
  • Fuel: The old grapevine stocks are popular as firewood, especially for grilling due to the aromatic smoke. The twigs make good kindling.
  • Grapeseed Oil: Grapeseed oil is pressed from the seeds. It is used for culinary and cosmetic purposes. For culinary use, the oil must be refined to make it fit for consumption. Unrefined grapeseed oil is slightly sticky. As a massage oil, it is best to blend it with other oils.
  • Culinary uses: Grapes are wonderfully refreshing, nourishing and cleansing fruits that can be enjoyed straight from the vine. Their sweet and tasty juice makes a refreshing beverage and can also be used to make jelly. Evaporated to produce a concentrate, it makes a good sweetener. But above all, grape juice is fermented to make wine and champagne. Wines come in a staggering variety: reds, rose or white wines, champagne or sparkling wine, are made from hundreds of different grape varieties. A dessert wine is produced by adding alcohol to the ferment to prematurely stop the fermentation process.
  • The young tendrils can be eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. The flowers are also edible and can be prepared as fritters.
  • The sap tastes sweet and can be used as a drink, but harvesting large quantities weakens the vines. Roasted seeds can be used as a coffee substitute.
  • Pickled leaves are used as a wrapping for finger-food appetizers (dolmas) that are especially popular in Greek and Middle Eastern cuisines.
  • A crystalline salt, cream of tartar, also known as potassium bitartrate, is derived from the residue of pressed grapes. Sediments collected from wine barrels are used for making baking powder.


Photographs by Kat Morgenstern


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Fly Agaric (Amanita Muscaria)

Fly Agaric (Amanita Muscaria)

Fly Agaric – a magical Mushroom

Bold and undeniably conspicuous, the bright red cap with its white flaky speckles gives this fungus away. Every child is familiar with the infamous ‘Fly Agaric’.

A familiar image in popular culture, it is known as the ‘Glückspilz’ (lucky mushroom) in Germany. It is one of the five quintessential symbols of good fortune, along with the pig, the 4-leaved clover, the chimney sweep, and horseshoes. Innumerable trinkets, variously cast in chocolate, marzipan, or plastic fill window displays, especially around New Year’s Eve.

Plaster-cast versions are also frequently found to decorate suburban lawns along with jolly old plaster-cast gnomes, smoking their plaster pipes. It is featured in innumerable children’s books illustrating innocent fairy tales. Like no other species, Fly Agaric symbolizes the magic of an enchanted forest with its magical groves. Everybody knows this is where fairies, gnomes, and witches dwell.

Fly Agaric in Mythology

Mythologies from around the world echo the enigma of the Fly Agaric. Everywhere it is seen as a semi-divine being and often it is associated with the mighty thunder gods and their cosmic fire. In India, for example, Fly Agaric is sacred to Agni, the god of fire. His devotees made sacrificial offerings of Fly Agaric while partaking of it as a sacrament. It is said to have helped them to commune with their god.

In Mayan dialects, Fly Agaric is known as ‘Kukulja’, which also means ‘thunder’. The Lacandon Maya call it ‘Eh kib lu’um’, which translates as ‘ the Light of the Earth‘ (Rätsch).

In parts of northern and Eastern Europe, it is sometimes called ‘Raven Bread’ in allusion to Woden’s companions. According to legend, the wise ravens were Woden’s constant companions. They would travel on his shoulders, whispering many a secret into his ears. Woden /Thor is a thunder-god. He is a wild, shamanic god of nature, who commands the elements. He gallops across the sky on his brave steed, Sleipnir, the eight-legged stallion, who runs swift as the wind and kicks up the storm clouds in his wake. As he gathers speed, foam forms at the horse’s mouth and drops to the earth. Magically, each drop of foam becomes a Fly Agaric.

In Western mythology, the Fly Agaric represents the archetypal mushroom – even people who know nothing about fungi recognize it at once. But, depending on their heritage, people are mostly conditioned to fear all mushrooms (a condition known as ’mycophobia’). Only the flavorless varieties found on supermarket shelves are believed to be edible. (This has changed a bit, in recent years, as Eastern Europeans, who love mushrooms, have brought their love of fungi with them as they migrated around Europe.


Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria), is a gill-bearing toadstool, growing to between 5 -12cm tall. When young, it is covered by a white membranous veil, which rips as the stem pushes up and the bright red cap expands. The remains of the veil skirt the stem (ring) and also leave white, wart-like flakes on the cap.

(Caution: no white flecks is not a sure sign that whatever red-capped mushroom you may have found is NOT a Fly Agaric, since heavy rain can wash them off).

As the fungus matures the cap opens up like an umbrella, forming a depression around the center. Its red skin can easily be peeled off. The stem is bulbous at the base and discontinuous with the cap. The flesh is white and has no particular smell when fresh. Upon drying it develops an unpleasant musky-acrid smell, which, it has been claimed, can ward off flies.

This myth is supposed to explain the fungi’s name, but unfortunately, it is not true.

  • young fly agaric

Related Species

In North America, A. americana, a closely related species can be mistaken for the Fly Agaric. However, its’ cap tends to be more yellowy-orange. Less similar and more toxic is A. pantherina, the Panther Cap. Its cap tends to be more yellow-brownish and its stem more slender. All of these Amanita species are generally considered poisonous and even deadly, and several other deadly poisonous Amanitas, such as the ‘Death Cap’, also join their ranks.

Is Fly Agaric poisonous?

In 2016, the American Association of Poison Control recorded some 6000 cases where ingestion has lead to some intense symptoms. But only four of these cases were fatal.

But that does not mean that they are ‘safe’, or don’t produce some serious symptoms.

Symptoms include: ‘nausea and vomiting, somnolence, dizziness, hallucinations, dysphoria, delirium, ataxia, myoclonic movements, and seizures.’ (American Association of Poison Control)

Yet, Fly Agaric features strongly in mythology and ritual use around the world – particularly in Asia.


Mushroom guide books mark Fly Agarics with the familiar warning symbol of the skull and bones next to its name. Yet, despite this reputation, evidence from around the globe suggests that in the past (and, in some places even to the present day) people have actually enjoyed a rather intimate relationship with this ‘very dangerous’ mushroom. Apparently, this is no ordinary, poisonous toadstool, but rather a powerful psychotropic entheogen with a very colorful history and folklore.

Modern research has revealed that the chemical make-up of Amanita muscaria is rather complex. Earlier chemists had mistakenly assumed that the psychoactive principle of Fly Agaric was to be found in a tropane alkaloid known as muscarine. This substance, related to a group of alkaloids present in other ‘Witches Herbs’, such as Henbane and Belladonna, has a very unpleasant impact on the CNS, including profuse salivation, lachrymation, and perspiration. However, its concentration in the mushroom is actually very low (approx. 0.0003%). Furthermore, it does not easily cross the blood/brain barrier and nor does it have any psychotropic effect – thus it is hardly a likely candidate for the principle involved in producing the mushroom’s reputed mind-altering properties.

It wasn’t until the mid-sixties that the true entheogenic compounds of Amanita muscaria were positively identified as ibotenic acid and muscimol, its decarboxylated derivative. The research concluded that the actual psychotropic effect is most likely produced by muscimol (Chilton, 1975) since 50-100 mg of ibotenic acid produces the same effects as 10-15 mg of muscimol. The symptoms of inebriation are characterized by muscle twitching, dizziness, visual distortions (macropsia and micropsia), and altered auditory perception. (Chilton, 1975).

fly agaric, different stages

Ethnobotany of Fly Agaric

The potency of any particular mushroom is subject to various environmental factors, such as seasonal variation, the weather, the phase of the moon, and the pH level of the soil. The Kamchadals, the native people of Kamchatka (northern Siberia), have a long and well-documented history of Fly Agaric use. They believe, that Fly Agarics that desiccate while still connected to the earth tend to produce a stronger psychotropic effect than those that are picked fresh and strung up to dry. They also claim that the smaller ones, whose bright red caps are still covered with many white spots, are said to be stronger than the larger ones with paler caps and fewer spots. Those picked in August are said to be the strongest. It has been suggested that a dose of 9 – 10 caps could be considered potentially lethal, although no specific data supports this claim. The individual constitution, weight, and size of the person ingesting them would influence the result. Apart from the environmental and physical factors, the mental condition also plays an important role. Case studies have shown that people who mistakenly ingested the mushroom, believing that it was highly dangerous and that their lives were thus in peril, reported much more severe symptoms of poisoning than those who had intentionally partaken of it but misjudged the dose (Ott 1976a).

Archaeological and linguistic evidence traces Fly-Agaric use back to at least some 3000-6000 years BCE. Some scholars believe that it may stretch even further into pre-history and that it may be the most archaic entheogen known to mankind.

It appears that Fly-Agaric was known throughout Siberia but not universally used. Some tribes never used it, while others only consumed it ritually in a spiritual context, or used it medicinally, ritually, or simply for entertainment purposes. But the custom is best documented for northeastern Siberia, wherein some communities it persists to this day.

Mircea Eliade, the world’s foremost authority on Shamanism, described Fly Agaric ceremonies among the various Siberian tribes. However, colored by his own attitudes, he considered such practices (and for that matter any ceremonial use of psychotropic plants) as a decadent trend. (Eliade ‘Shamanism’ 1951) Many modern scholars disagree with his point of view, which sharply contrasts with the actual historical evidence (Rutledge). However, the casual use of Entheogens does seem to be a more modern development. Where this is practiced, the ritual use of Fly Agaric is gradually declining and is increasingly replaced by a more recent introduction: Vodka.

Fly Agaric Use in North-Eastern Siberia

However, Siberian shamans consider Fly Agaric the essence of their mysteries. It is their gateway to the experience of divine ecstasy, a trance-like state that enables them to fly into the world of their gods, battle with demons, and to gain fantastic visions. And it is this magical flight that the common name ‘Fly’- Agaric’ alludes to, not, as has often been suggested, its alleged power to ward off flies.

During the latter part of the 19th century, the German ethnologist J. Enderli spent 2 years among the Chukchee and Koryaks of Eastern Siberia. (Zwei Jahre bei den Tschuktschen und Korjaken). During his stay, he had the opportunity to witness first-hand one of these much-fabled, mushroom induced trance sessions. According to his report, the task of preparing the dried mushrooms fell to the women, who usually did not consume them themselves.

After selecting a few suitable specimens they began to chew them thoroughly so as to make them pliable and moist. They then took them out of their mouths, rolled them into sausage shapes, and gave them to the two men, who proceeded to place them deep down their throats to swallow them whole. After the fourth mushroom had been ingested in this manner the first effects began to show. The men started to tremble and twitch as though they had lost control of their muscles. Their eyes took on a wild glow, quite unlike the glazed look of alcohol inebriation, although the men apparently remained fully conscious throughout this phase.

The agitation increased until they suddenly fell into a trance-state and began to sing monotonously in low voices. Gradually their chanting became louder and wilder till they had worked themselves into a frenzy, their eyes glaring wildly, shouting incomprehensible words, and both of them going quite literally ‘berserk’. They demanded their (ritual) drums, which the women brought immediately. At once they began a wild, unbelievably frenetic dance accompanied by equally wild and ear-shattering drumming, yelling and singing, while both men ran about the yurt in a manic fury which left nothing untouched. Everything was thrown about, kicked over, and turned upside down until the place was in a state of total chaos. Eventually, almost as if struck dead, both of them collapsed exhausted and fell into a deep sleep.

This phase is the most important aspect of this exhausting ritual. It is in this trance-like sleep that the gateway to the ‘Other-World’ is opened, and the shaman experiences vivid, even lucid dreams and ecstatic visions, often of a strong sexual and sensual nature. In this state, he can diagnose the causes of diseases, determine the whereabouts of lost objects, retrieve lost souls, fight with demonic forces, or gleam visions of things to come. This otherworldly state, however, does not last long. After about half an hour of sleep, the shaman briefly awakes to full consciousness, but soon the inebriation sets in once more and continues in gradually weakening cycles of excitement, frenzy, exhaustion, and sleep.

The most curious aspect of this ritual is the fact that the inebriating power of the mushroom is not destroyed by normal metabolic processes but instead is passed into the urine almost without diminishing its effect. This has given cause to a rather unsavory habit described by some of the early ethnologists recounting their field experiences in Siberia:

‘Those who had partaken of the mushroom would collect their own urine and without a moment’s hesitation drink the liquid down, with the result of reinforcing the inebriation and starting the cycle all over once more. Sometimes the urine was saved in a special vessel for a later occasion or even shared with others who might not have been able to afford the mushrooms for themselves. (The rate of exchange in areas where it is not common is one reindeer per dried mushroom cap!) Even after passing through the body in this form substantial amounts of muscimol will again be passed into the urine unchanged. Thus it is said that the same mushroom can be ‘recycled’ 6-8 times.

Macropsia and Micropsia

During the phases of frenzy, the inebriated person feels tremendously strong. They are also affected by what is known as ‘macropsia’, or micropsia, a visual distortion that lets objects appear much larger or much smaller than they really are. Thus a blade of grass might seem as large as a tree trunk or a small hole can turn into the entrance of a cave. Many unbelievable feats of strength and endurance have been accomplished under the influence of Fly Agaric. One man reportedly carried a 120-pound load for 10 miles without stopping, something he could never have done under normal circumstances. Some historians have proposed that the notorious raids of the Vikings/Norse men may have been carried out under the influence, turning them literally into ‘Berserkers’ with inhuman strength. However, there is no concrete evidence to support this theory.

(It is interesting to note that Lewis Caroll in his classic tale, Alice in Wonderland, lets his heroine encounter the magic mushroom at the gateway between solid and lucid realities: It is the abode of the stoned caterpillar, who explains some of the oddities of Wonderland to the confused Alice. She had already experienced the wondrous effects of ‘macropsia’, and micropsia, which are typical symptoms of Fly Agaric inebriation.

alice in wonderland

Other Methods of Preparation

The Koryak prepared the mushroom in several different ways. The most common one is described above.


They also occasionally boiled the fungi to make a mushroom soup. This method is said to reduce its potency. For an intoxicating effect more mushrooms would thus be needed.


Sometimes dried mushrooms were soaked in distilled Bilberry juice – obviously a fairly modern method since distillation only reached Siberia in the 1500s.

Synergistic blending with Willow-Herb

Occasionally they were mixed with the juice of Willow-Herb.

To my knowledge, there has not been any research to investigate the possible synergistic action of this combination.

Medicinal use:

Medicinally, Fly Agaric was used for ‘psychophysical fatigue’ and for bites of venomous snakes. (Saar, 1991) It was also applied externally to treat joint ailments (Moskalenko, 1987). In Afghanistan, a smoking mixture containing Fly Agaric, known as tshashm baskon (‘eye opener’) is used for psychosis (Mochtar & Geerken, 1979). In Western medicine, Fly Agaric serves as a well-known homeopathic remedy, that is used for tic bites, epilepsy, and depression, and in conjunction with the homeopathic tincture of Mandrake, is used to treat Parkinson disease. (Villers & Thümen 1893, Waldschmidt 1992).

Fly Agaric Use in Western Cultures

Since the 1960s, the casual and experimental use of Fly Agaric in Western cultures has steadily increased. However, it is said that the effects of Amanita species found in North America and Central Europe are not equal to those found in Siberia. It is often claimed, (but not proven), that the North American and European species tend to be more nauseating and not as lucid as their Siberian cousins. It is unlikely that Fly Agaric will ever become popular as a recreational drug among casual thrill-seekers, as the inebriation is often accompanied by intense nausea and vomiting (some people have reported no other effect from their experiments).

While shamanic beliefs tend to regard vomiting as a way to cleanse the body of impurities, thus preparing it for possession by gods or spiritual beings, casual users tend to see vomiting merely as a rather unpleasant side-effect. Furthermore, Fly Agaric inebriation results in a severe hangover the following day, which also makes it a lot less appealing to casual users.

Those who have conducted self-experiments, often report visions of gnomes, not unlike those found in the suburban gardens mentioned above. These reports echo mushroom lore from Siberia, which features ‘mushroom-men’. They are depicted as small stocky, sometimes neckless beings, who move swiftly and guide the shaman on his journey to the ‘Other-World’.

This curious lore is substantiated by a number of Siberian cliff drawings that strongly resemble descriptions of these mushroom-men. The number of these little men that appear in the visions is said to correspond with the number of mushrooms consumed. The Yurak shamans always take 2 ½ mushrooms, who, they say, run ahead along convoluted paths. The shaman can only keep up with them because the ‘half-man’ runs more slowly.

gnome and fly agaric house

Gordon Wasson

It would be neglectful not to mention Gordon Wasson in any discussion of ethnomycology, as he and his wife have probably done more to stimulate research in this field than anybody else. In the course of their extensive research into the folklore and folk-uses of fungi, they came upon some very interesting findings, which lead them to believe that many of the mycophobic attitudes present today can be attributed to remnants of an ancient mushroom cult. According to their theory, subsequent layers of political and religious rulers have demonized the once ‘tabooed’ sacraments and holy icons of this cult (the mushrooms). Originally, they were deemed ‘taboo’ as their ritual use was considered a privilege of the ruling / religious class.

At the time, the academic establishment did not welcome such suggestions and point-blank rejected many of their findings. But, since they were amateurs with a passion for the fungi, rather than the world of Academia, they persisted. Eventually, their research did attract some attention and they began to collaborate with Albert Hoffman, who had discovered LSD. It is predominantly due to the Wasson’s pioneering work that the idea of psychotropic substance use (and in particular, psychotropic mushrooms) as an integral part of magico-religious practices among ‘primitive’ cultures has eventually gained widespread acceptance.

Wasson conducted extensive research into the ‘Rig Veda’, a collection of sacred hymns composed by the Indo-Aryan peoples, who swept down into the Indus valley of India some 3500 years ago. The ‘Rig Veda’ is one of the most ancient sacred texts known to humankind and it is full of references to sacred and medicinal plants. Many of them have been proven difficult to identify, however. One such plant or substance is known as ‘Soma’.

More than one hundred verses of the Rig Veda celebrate and sing its praises, describing its potent powers and alluding to its divine origin. Scholars today generally accept that Soma is probably some kind of psychotropic plant, although they still argue over its precise botanical identity.

Unfortunately, the authors of the ‘Rig Veda’ omit to mention any botanical details regarding its leaves, flowers, or fruit. Like most religious texts, the hymns are written in a rather poetic language, lacking a concrete description. Instead, it alludes to Soma as ‘the one-legged’, ‘thunder born’, and similar terms. Wasson concluded that this should be read as an allusion to its fungal nature. He proposed that Soma was in fact Fly Agaric. He argued that surely if the Soma plant did display ‘mighty roots’ or ‘sweetly smelling flowers’ or any other such noteworthy features, the authors of the ‘Rig Veda’ would no doubt have given them a poetic line or two. But mushrooms, of course, do not have such features, which would explain why there is no mention of them. The absence of such a description, he argues, in itself provides a strong hint.

Wasson studied the ‘Rig Veda’ in great detail and came up with a number of other supporting factors for his theory, which he published in his book ‘Soma’ in 1968. However, most of the scientific community at the time never quite accepted his proposals. Today, scholars are split into two camps, those who support Wasson’s’ findings, and those who are still doubtful and continue to search for an alternative explanation.

Certainly, it is challenging to translate and interpret ancient texts such as the Rig Veda, and be certain of its original meaning, beyond doubt. However, one has to ask the question of how and why such an obviously important substance could have been ‘lost’? The only plausible answer lends support to the Wasson camp: the Aryan people, who came from the north, brought with them only the cultural memory of this magical substance, but not the actual plant. It is impossible to cultivate Fly Agaric, and since it does not occur naturally in the Indus valley, it is likely that it gradually passed into the mythical realm. If one accepts the fungal nature of Soma, then Fly Agaric really emerges as the most logical choice, despite the fact that other psychotropic mushrooms are native to the homelands of the Indo-Aryan people. The use of these other species is not as widespread and common, and hardly anything is known about them, to this day.

However, the identity of Soma remains a mystery.  Who really knows what people might have known and used in the distant past? Their knowledge has passed into oblivion. For all we know today, their sacred Soma – fungus or not, may even have long since become extinct.


Fly Agaric is a powerful fungus, whose effects can be extremely variable and dangerous in the hands of fools. Self-experimentation is not recommended. In particular, all amanita species with a white or greenish cap should be avoided, as these are definitely very deadly. The information provided in this article is intended for educational purposes only, and should not be taken as medical advice. The author takes no responsibility for any events that may occur as a result of self-experimentation.

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