Gardening Jobs in April

Gardening Jobs in April

The main gardening jobs in April are planting, sowing, and weeding. 

April is a busy month for gardeners. Hopefully, you have been able to prep your veggie plots in March, and they are now ready for action.

 

Seed Potatoes

Your seed potatoes should be chitted (=sprouted) and ready to plant. Now it is time to plant them. If you don’t have much space, try growing them vertically in potato grow bags, or towers.

 

Tomatoes, Chillies & co

Warmth-loving plants
Really, the best time to sow Tomatoes, Chillies, Aubergines, and Zucchinis is in the latter part of March, from about Equinox. So hurry if you want to grow them from seed. Start them under glass or indoors.

Alternatively, you can buy plant starts at the farmer’s market or garden centre next month. Or, perhaps one of your gardening friends has far more plants than space in their own garden and would be happy to share.

If you started your tomatoes very early, they begin to look straggly by now. Don’t be tempted to plant them out until all danger of night frosts has passed. Instead, pot them up to just below the first leaf node. This will encourage them to develop more roots and prevent the stem from getting too dangly.

 

Gardening Jobs in April: up-potting Tomato Seedlings

Onion Sets and Shallots

Continue to plant onion sets to extend your harvesting season.

 

Direct sowing

Beetroots

Sow beetroots directly into the prepared plots or containers. Sow about 10 cm apart, or thin seedlings out once they are about 3 cm tall.

 

Carrots

Carrots can be sown directly into the well-prepared ground. They prefer loose, sandy, well-draining soil. They will fork if the ground is too heavy or full of stones. The seedlings are very fragile and don’t take well to being transplanted.

 

Starting carrots in a gutter pipe is a nifty gardening hack. Watch here to see how it is done.

The contents of the drain pipe can be transferred directly to the prepared plot without having to handle individual seedlings.

 

Leeks

You can still sow leeks under glass now. When they have grown to about 15-20cm tall, transplant them into well-prepared soil. To get a long blanched shaft, plant them deeply into approx. 20cm deep holes 15cm apart. The rows should be about 30cm apart.

If you stagger the sowing and transplanting the harvest can be significantly extended. In theory, it can start as early as August and continue through the winter. Harvest them fresh, as needed.

 

Radishes

Sow radishes at regular intervals right through August to ensure a continuous supply. The seeds are tiny, so thin out the seedlings to about 2,5cm per plant once they are about 3cm tall. They are an ideal ‘gap’ crop or row marker as they grow fast and can be harvested long before a slow-growing main crop develops. Filling gaps with radishes also helps to keep the weeds at bay. Water regularly and keep an eye out for predatory slugs and snails.

Gardening Jobs in April: Sowing Radishes

Swiss Chard

Coloured varieties of Swiss Chard are beautiful edimentals, even if you like the taste. Sow directly into a well-prepared bed. They are tolerant of partial shade, so they don’t have to take the prime spot in the garden.

 

Turnips

Like radishes, turnips are fast and easy to grow. Harvested young, they can be eaten raw or cooked, and the leaves are edible as well.

 

Peas

Sow peas at intervals to ensure a continued supply. Unlike most plants, peas don’t mind growing closely together. There is no need to thin them out; growing them in thick bunches keeps the weeds down and increases the yield. Keep them moist at first. Later, they usually only need to be watered deeply once a week, especially once they start flowering. Mulch them to keep the moisture in the soil.

 

Weeding

Controlling weeds is a tiresome task. Get on top of it early, and you will save yourself a lot of time and effort later on when it gets much harder to pull them out without damaging your crops. Mulching is a great way to keep the weeds down and the moisture in the ground.

 Happy Gardening!

 

Check out SeedsNow for your organic gardening supplies!

Happy Spring Equinox

Happy Spring Equinox

At the dawn of the Spring Equinox  – we reflect on the new cycle that is about to begin. Tentatively, the earth wakes from her winter’s sleep, buds swell, birds sing, flowers burst forth – despite the suffering and sorrow we witness daily.

Persephone is returning to the upper world. At the Spring Equinox, light and dark are hanging in the balance. But with every passing day, the sun gathers strength. Mother Earth, violated and scarred by war yet again, nevertheless dons her spring flower garment and slowly turns the land lush and green.

The joy and expectant anticipation we usually feel at this time are somewhat subdued. And yet, we are all so ready for spring!

We all want to return to some kind of normalcy. Are we hoping in vain?
But the garden is calling nonetheless. The soil is eager to receive the seeds, so they may be quickened and burst to life.

At home, it is time to clear out the winter dust. Spring-cleaning, painting, and decorating are on the agenda. Get ready for the light season and make the most of its fleeting joys!

It is also time for inner cleansing and to boost our vitality with the fresh vitamins and nutrients of early spring herbs. When the body is strong, the mind is also string – and right now, we need all the resilience we can muster.

Focus on the things that matter to you most and make your intentions clear. Life is precious.

The Spring Equinox stands for new beginnings. It is a time to celebrate the eternal life force and the mysteries of its eternal return.

Gardening Jobs for March

Gardening Jobs for March

Gardening Jobs in March

March is ‘busy season’. As soon as the sun comes out, and it’s warm (and dry) enough to be outside, every gardener itches to get their hands into the dirt again. But where to start?

Preparing the vegetable beds

Once the ground has thawed and dried off a bit, it’s time to get going with the preparations:

1) It is a good idea to get rid of the weeds early on (especially the perennial or biennial ones). They will be half the trouble later on.

2) If you haven’t done it yet, start tidying up the garden: dead-heading old flower heads and clearing everything that has died off. But, remember that butterfly larvae overwinter on old nettles and such. Nettles support some 40 species of insects and butterflies!

If fresh, you already have young nettles  coming up, make the most of this wonderful early wild vegetable. Consider leaving some standing year-round for the wildlife, if you have a spot where they are not in the way.

3) Work in plenty of good, home-grown compost into the vegetable plots and prepare the soil to get a fine crumb. This will make it a lot easier for your seedlings to break through the crust.

What to sow in March?

Your sowing schedule largely depends on your growing zone and whether you have a suitable space to start seedlings indoors. If you live in a mild climate, you can sow some hardier, early varieties out in the open, as early as March. But frost-sensitive plants, like tomatoes, should be started indoors. Lettuce and radishes do well in a cold frame. The shorter your growing season, the earlier you need to start your seeds indoors on the window sill. That way, they will get a head start and prolongs the growing season. By the time there is no more danger of late ground frosts, they will have developed into little plants that are more resilient by the time you plant them out. 

 

Indoors or under glass

You can sow fennel, broccoli, kohlrabi, cabbage (early varieties), Savoy cabbage, Malabar spinach (late March), New Zealand spinach, carrots, autumn leeks, and celery either in the cold frame or indoors. Warmth-loving plants, like tomatoes, zucchini, aubergines and chillies, fennel, and bell pepper do best when started indoors in an environment of about 20°C.

On sunny days, don’t forget to open the cold frame to give your seedlings some air – otherwise, they will get baked under the glass.

Most importantly, make sure your seedlings never dry, after sowing them. Water is life – they cannot grow without it.

Outdoors

Onion sets can be planted out in March. Beetroots, Swiss chard, lettuce, (also Asian lettuce, peas, rocket, radishes, and nasturtiums are all hardy enough to be sown directly into your well-prepared veggie plots. 

 

Check out SeedsNow for your organic gardening supplies!

Cacao can do more – New Uses for an Old Crop

Cacao can do more – New Uses for an Old Crop

In the past, there has been a lot of organic waste from the Cacao harvest. Research has been focused on alternative uses for all the discarded pods and fruit pulp produced during the Cacao bean harvest.

CACAO BUTTER :

A white /yellowish oil, expressed from the crushed seeds

CONSTITUENTS:

Palmitic, Stearic-, Oleic-, Linoleic Acid, traces of Isoleic acid

ACTIONS:

Emollient and nutrient

Non-chocolate uses of Theobroma Cacao

 

Economically, the most important use of Cacao is for making chocolate and cocoa for all our favourite sweet stuff. Cacao fat, pressed from roasted Cacao beans, is a by-product that has its own uses. 

Cacao Butter for Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical uses

The cosmetic industry uses Cacao butter as a nutritionally rich, moisturizing, and emollient fat in numerous skin-care products.

Cacao butter is solid at room temperature but melts at body temperature. Suppositories, meant to dissolve inside the body, are often made with Cacao butter. Lotions for haemorrhoids, vaginal and uterine lesions, or dry, chapped skin, lip balm and wound dressings also frequently contain Cacao butter. 

Internally, Cacao butter can help soothe bronchial and intestinal irritations. In fact, even high quality, high percentage Cocoa and Chocolate has some amazing superfood properties.

 

 New uses from waste products

During processing, the beans and some fruit pulp are left to ‘sweat’ for a few days, which changes the beans’ chemistry, reducing their bitterness and creating the right conditions for their characteristic chocolate flavour to develop. Although the pulp is an essential part of this process, only small amounts are. About 60% of the pulp goes to waste. 

 

Cacao smoothies and juices

But it doesn’t have to. In Brazil, farmers remove much of the pulp to modify the acidity and obtain smoother-tasting beans. The fruit pulp is sold at the local market and turned into various delicious products. Cocoa fruit-pulp jelly is a local delicacy. It serves as an ingredient in juices or shakes. But it could also be frozen and used to flavour ice cream, yoghurt or sold as a fruit juice concentrate. Unfortunately, so far, preserving large amounts of pulp has proved difficult and costly. 

 

 

To find ways to make more of the harvest, besides the beans, would be highly desirable, since Cacao prices on the global market are fickle, putting the small subsistence farmers at risk. 

 

New uses for discarded pods

Traditionally, a certain proportion of discarded pods is fed to animals, but the pods are not very digestible. In West Africa, the discarded pods are burnt to yield potassium-rich ash, used for making soap. But composting them, or making bio-char which in turn could be used to return valuable nutrients to the soil, would reduce farmers’ dependence on chemical fertilizers and reduce their costs. (1)

 

In recent years, research has focused on other alternative products that could be obtained from Cacao without decreasing pod yields.  (Antonio Figueira, Jules Janick, and James N. BeMiller, 1993)

 Gum

One such product is gum, present in both the stem and, to a larger extent, in the pods. This gum has a similar composition as Karaya Gum, which is typically extracted from various Sterculia species. 

 

The food- and pharmaceutical industries use it as an emulsifying agent and fixative. Studies show that Cacao pod gum compares favourably with Gum Karaya. Both contain the same monosaccharides, but Cacao pod gum also contains arabinose and has a higher proportion of rhamnose, making it better suited as a binder for pharmaceutical pills. In this respect, it is even superior to Gum Tragacanth. (Figueira et al. 1992).

 

Due to supply inconsistencies, the demand for Karaya gum has diminished. But Cacao pod gum could provide a superior and readily available alternative that could also provide a secondary source of income for subsistence farmers.

 

References

(1) Using Cocoa Pod Husks to Improve Crop Yields and Soil Quality

 

Figueira, A., J. Janick, and J.N. BeMiller. 1993. New products from Theobroma cacao: Seed pulp and pod gum. p. 475-478. In: J. Janick and J.E. Simon (eds.), New crops. Wiley, New York.

Figueira, A., J. Janick, M. Yadav, and J.N. BeMiller. 1992. Cacao gum: a potential new economic product. In: Proc. Int. Cocoa Conf. Challenges in the 90s (in press).

Unten, S., H. Ushijima, H. Shimizu, H. Tsuchie, T. Kitamura, N. Moritome, and H. Sakagami. 1991. Effect of cacao husk extract on human immunodeficiency virus infection. Letters Appl. Microbiol. 14:251-254.

12 amazing superfood properties of Cacao

12 amazing superfood properties of Cacao

Medicinal and Therapeutic Properties of Cacao

This article is about some surprising medicinal benefits of real Cacao – the stuff that chocolate is made of.

It may come as a surprise, but Cacao is actually pretty healthy.  (It’s my favourite ‘superfood’. 🙂

 

If you are interested in the history of Cacao and how we have come to love chocolate so much, take a look at this article about the cultural history of chocolate.

 

CACAO BEANS

PARTS USED: Dried seeds and seed shells.
HARVEST: Cacao pods take about 5-6 months to mature. The harvest occurs twice a year, from September to February and May/June, even though there is always ripe and unripe fruit on the same tree.
CONSTITUENTS: Fat, Amino Acids, Alkaloids (Theobromine, Caffeine), Riboflavin, Niacin, Thiamine, Calcium, Iron, Potassium, Magnesium, Vitamins A, C, D and E, polyphenols.
ACTIONS: Diuretic, stimulant, aphrodisiac, anti-depressant, nutritive anti-inflammatory, antioxidant

Crushed Cocoa Beans

Crushed Cacao Beans

Image by janiceweirgermia from Pixabay

Diuretic

In Central America, a tea made from crushed Cacao seed shells called ‘nibs’ is used as an effective diuretic. A strong flow of urine is a sign of health and vigour, and any substance that produces this effect is praised as an aphrodisiac, enhancing male potency.

Anti HIV-properties

A pigment extracted from the husks has anti-HIV properties. In vitro studies have demonstrated that polymerized flavonoids present in the husks reduce the damaging effects of HIV. Apparently, they prevent the virus from entering the cells (Unten et al. 1991). But once inside the cell, the virus replicates normally.

Anti-inflammatory

Cacao is incredibly rich in polyphenols, antioxidant flavonoids that have a powerful anti-inflammatory effect.

Animal studies also suggest that Theobromine and Theophylline can ease inflammatory conditions of the respiratory tract, such as asthma, by dilating the lungs and thus helping to relax the air passages.

But unfortunately, most of them are lost due to the standard methods used to process Cacao Beans.

Cardio-Vascular support

Apparently, eating chocolate can be good for your heart health! In 2015, a study found that habitual chocolate consumption can reduce the risk of cardiovascular health issues, providing it is of high quality with a high cacao content. (2)

Cacao can relax and widen the arteries, thus reducing blood pressure and improving blood circulation. Combined with its ability to reduce ‘bad’ cholesterol, it can help prevent heart attacks and strokes.

Skincare from within

The Cacao phenols are also good for the skin. They improve blood circulation to the peripheral cells and improve the smoothness of the skin by helping to hydrate it from within. Long-term use is also said to protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun.

Mood enhancing

The higher the Cacao content, the better it is for your well-being. Have you ever wondered why you are craving chocolate when doing demanding mental work? It’s your body telling you what it needs: High Cocoa chocolate (min. 65%) has nutritional and stimulating properties that make it a good ‘pick-me-up’.

The flavonols in Cacao improve mood, alleviate symptoms of depression and reduce stress. One study of pregnant women even showed this stress-reducing effect to be conferred to the babies. It is also popular as comfort food to soothe PMS symptoms. Another study showed that older men can benefit from the regular consumption of high Cacao content chocolate, reporting improved health and well-being.

Cognition

Even better, high Cacao content chocolate improves cognitive functions by increasing the blood flow to the brain. The beneficial flavanols can also cross the blood-brain barrier and directly benefit the neurons. For those suffering from cognitive impairments or neuronal conditions such as Alzheimer’s, or Parkinson’s, high Cacao content chocolate is brain food.

The findings are promising, suggesting that more research is warranted.

Blood-sugar regulation

High Cacao chocolate can even have a positive effect on Type 2 Diabetes symptoms. The unexpected findings showed that flavanols can slow the carbohydrate metabolism and uptake in the gut, while stimulating insulin secretion, lowering inflammation and aiding the transfer of sugar from the blood to the muscles.

 

Weight loss

Interestingly, high cocoa content chocolate actually has a positive effect on the body mass index (BMI). Chocolate eaters (min 81% cocoa) lose weight faster than people who do not eat chocolate.

 

Anti-Cancer

Several animal studies indicate that a flavanol-rich Cacao diet lowers the risk of cancer – especially breast, pancreatic, liver and colon cancer and leukaemia. However, more research is needed.

 

Immune system stimulation

Another counterintuitive finding is that Cacao contains antibacterial, anti-enzymatic and immune-stimulating compounds that can have a beneficial effect on oral health.

 

NOTE

It must be stressed, that all of these benefits only apply to high cocoa content chocolate that is very low in sugar, or without sugar. The common candy bar has NO health benefits. On the contrary, chocolate candy can be harmful.

 

(In case you are confused about flavonoids, flavanols and flavanols, they are actually different compounds. Take a look at this article to help clear up the confusion.)

References:

(1) Unten, S., H. Ushijima, H. Shimizu, H. Tsuchie, T. Kitamura, N. Moritome, and H. Sakagami. 1991. Effect of cacao husk extract on human immunodeficiency virus infection. Letters Appl. Microbiol. 14:251-254.

(2) (Kwok CS, Boekholdt SM, Lentjes MA, Loke YK, Luben RN, Yeong JK, Wareham NJ, Myint PK, Khaw KT. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women. Heart. 2015 Aug;101(16):1279-87. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2014-307050. Epub 2015 Jun 15. Erratum in: Heart. 2018 Mar;104(6):532. PMID: 26076934; PMCID: PMC6284792.)

 

 

History of the Cocoa Tree- Theobroma cacao

History of the Cocoa Tree- Theobroma cacao

Plant Profile: Cocoa (Theobroma cacao)

Surely, everybody loves chocolate. Yet, little is known about its origin or its fascinating history. This article is a short introduction to one of my favourite plants: Cocoa – Theobroma cacao, the food of the gods.

Description

If you saw a Cacao tree, you’d never think that this is the stuff that chocolate is made of. As tropical trees go, Cacao is of modest size and height. It only grows to about 10 m to 20 m high. That’s because it is a shade-tolerant ‘understorey tree’. On plantations, where most of them are grown, they are kept much smaller to facilitate easy harvesting.

Cacao trees take about five years to mature and produce fruit, and they can live for over 200 years. But, for commercial purposes, they are considered productive for only about twenty-five years.

The Theobroma genus comprises about 20 species, of which T. cacao is the most widely cultivated one.

 

Its appearance is very distinctive:

Botanical name: Theobroma cacao
Family: Sterculiaceae

Synonyms:

Coco, Cocoa, Chocolate, Cacahuatl, Tlapalcacauatl, Cacauaxochitle (T. augustifolium)

Origin:

Northern parts of South America and Central America

Distribution:

Humid tropics, most notably Central and South America, West Africa and Sri Lanka, Indonesia and the Philippines

Cocoa leaves

Forest & Kim Starr CC BY 3.0 US , via Wikimedia Commons

Leaves

The mature leaves are dark green, large and glossy, very much in contrast to young leaves that are reddish and seem to droop from the end of the branches. They are pretending to be old and not worth munching on. As they mature, they turn dark green and robust.

Although deciduous, Cacao never sheds all its leaves at once. Young and mature leaves grow side-by-side on the same tree. The greyish-brown bark is rough and covered with patches of different coloured lichen and fungi.

 

Cocoa Tree Flowers

Flowers

But what is most surprising about the Cacao tree are its flowers that sprout in clusters directly from the tree trunk and older branches.

Botanically, this is known as a ‘cauliflorous‘ flower formation. The tiny creamy-pinkish flowers are short-lived and last only for a day, and they are fertile only from sunrise and sunset. If they are not pollinated within that time, they will wither and die.

Cacao is ‘self-incompatible’, meaning it cannot pollinate itself. Nor does the wind help with the task. The pollen is too heavy and sticky for the wind to carry. The task falls to various species of tiny insects.

 

cocoa pod
Cocoa pod and seeds

Fruit

From those tiny dangling flowers grow the most weird-looking pods, oblong and tapered at both ends, somewhat resembling a kind of squash.

The pods come in all colours and sizes and can be ribbed with thick skin, or smooth and thin-skinned, depending on the variety. Some pods only grow to about 4 inches long, but some types develop pods that can reach a whopping 12 inches. The immature fruits are green, turning yellow, orange, red or purple as they mature, a process that can take up to five or six months.

Each pod contains between 20 and 60 smooth, white seeds. As long as the pod stays intact, the seeds remain viable, but once opened and the pulp is removed, they dry out and lose their ability to germinate.

Cacao pods are a favourite monkey food. They may be unfamiliar with chocolate, but they are crazy about the delicious sweet and sour fruit pulp that envelopes the seeds.

 

Distribution

Cacao is grown in the tropics, but it is very fussy about its growing conditions. The greatest number of wild varieties are found in the lowland rainforest of northern South America, where Cacao is native. A true lowland rainforest species (never found above 100 ft above sea level), it likes to grow near water, e.g. on river banks or seasonally inundated ground.
Cacao likes it hot and steamy: its distribution range is tightly limited to about 15 degrees of latitude on either side of the equator.

 

Habitat and Ecology

Cacao is a tree of the tropics and very fussy about its growing conditions. Most wild varieties are found in the lowland rainforest of northern South America, where Cacao is native. A true lowland rainforest species (never found above 100 ft above sea level), it likes to grow near water, e.g. on river banks or seasonally inundated ground.

Cacao likes it hot and steamy: its distribution range is tightly limited to about 15 degrees of latitude on either side of the equator.

Cacao needs the shade of taller trees to protect young saplings and their sensitive immature leaves from direct sunlight. High humidity is a necessary prerequisite for healthy growth. But when trees are cut to create plantations, local weather patterns change. It gets drier, which negatively impacts yields and dries out the soil. Climate change also makes the trees more vulnerable to fungi and diseases.

Cacao plays an integral role in rainforest ecology. In natural conditions, it develops a taproot that helps to stabilize the river banks where it prefers to grow. The fruit pulp is a delicacy for many rainforest animals, but monkeys and birds are particularly keen on it.

Aztec preparation of xocolatl

The History of Cocoa

The native people of Central and South America revered the Cacao tree. They had cultivated Cacao trees for several hundred years before the Conquistadores’ invasion.

The Aztecs cultivated several species of cacao, none of which are grown commercially today. They used different species for distinct purposes: The types with the largest seeds were used as currency (money does grow on trees ;-). But it was the species with the smallest seeds, ‘Tlacacahuatl’, which was used to make a sacred beverage called Xocoatl.

 

Cocoa as privilege

Drinking Xocoatl was the privilege of nobles and priests, who consumed it in vast quantities. Moctezuma, the last Aztec emperor, devoured fifty golden goblets daily. This beverage was very different to what we now know and love as drinking chocolate. The Aztec version was savoury, not sweet, and there were many ways to prepare it depending on the occasion.

For general use, roasted Cacao seeds were ground and mixed with Atole (coarse, roasted corn flour) and whisked into a rich foaming brew. Chillies, Vanilla, Cinnamon and salt were added to taste.

 

Ceremonial use of Cocoa

The ceremonial beverage, Xocoatl, was considered as sacred as other psychotropic ritual plants, such as Ololuiqui (Turbina corymbosa) or sacred mushrooms (Psilocybe sp.). The Spanish chronicler Sahagún reports that Cacao, ‘…especially that made with the green, young fruits, has the power to intoxicate, to make one dizzy and to make one drunk…’ He warned against drinking too much of it but says, consumed in moderation, it fortifies the body and spirit.

 

Cocoa as an Aphrodisiac

Xocoatl was a powerful aphrodisiac and stimulating tonic. Moctezuma regularly fortified himself with it before entering the royal harem. The Mixtec, contemporaries of the Aztec, who inhabited the Oaxacan plateau, used Xocoatl in their marriage ceremonies. Chocolate has not lost its aphrodisiac appeal, even now. Chocolate probably ranks as the most popular choice for a romantic gift, next to flowers.

 

Neurochemical research

Neurochemical research has been able to shed some light on this ancient reputation. Scientists at the Neurosciences Institute in San Diego found three compounds in dark chocolate that closely resemble a naturally occurring neurotransmitter known as ‘Anandamide’.
Anandamide, (from Sanskrit Ananda = bliss), links to THC receptor sites in the brain. They produce a similar but less pronounced sense of well-being as Tetrahydrocannabinol, found in Cannabis. The scientists also found compounds (N-acylethanolamines) that block the breakdown of Anandamide [Piomelli, 1996].

 

Anandamide is the primary neurotransmitter present in the uterus during the early stages of pregnancy. It seems like its role is to convey a sense of bliss and contentment to welcome the embryonic spirit into the womb. Chocolate is also rich in Phenylethylamine, the signature compound associated with the euphoric state of being in love.

 

Mistaken identity and its consequences

When Cortés and his men arrived at the shores of the new world, Moctezuma mistook them for ambassadors of the feathered serpent god, Quetzalcoatl. He welcomed them with many fine gifts, including gold, jewellery and precious stones.

Appropriate to the occasion of welcoming divine guests, he also honoured them with a cup of the sacred Xocoatl brew, served in golden goblets. But the Spaniards were more interested in the gold and silver than in the cocoa brew, which they deemed ‘more suitable for hogs than men’. It took many years, but eventually, cocoa grew on them.

chocolateria Arrufat
Libertinus, CC BY-SA 2.0, via Wikimedia Commons

 

 

From Xocolatl to chocolate

Much experimentation and modification of the original recipe eventually produced something suitable for the Hispanic palate. And it soon became a hit.

Credit for it must be given to an order of Spanish nuns who lived in the province of Chiapas in southern Mexico. They learned to roast the cocoa beans, like the Aztecs, but instead of adding chilli and salt, they mixed them with cane sugar, vanilla and cinnamon.
The nuns loved their chocolate drink so much that they refused to abstain from it, even during mass.

Aware of Cacao’s aphrodisiac reputation, the Bishop was alarmed and tried to suppress the new custom. But, the nuns protested, insisting that the chocolate drink helped them overcome ‘the weakness of the stomach’ and even aided their efforts to pray. The Bishop gave in, and the nuns were granted permission to continue their unorthodox ways. And this is how the reformed Xocolatl conquered the world.

 

Cocoa conquers the Old World

When Cortés returned to Spain, among the many wondrous things he brought back was a sack of Cacao beans along with the recipe for the novel beverage. As in the New World, chocolate was, at first, reserved for the nobility. No ordinary mortal could afford its astronomical price. But it became an immediate hit at all the Royal Courts of Europe.

Cunningly, the Spaniards managed to keep the recipe a secret for almost a century. They had begun to plant Cacao plantations in their New World colonies soon after conquering the Aztec Empire, securing their absolute control of the cocoa trade. But ultimately, the secret of the cocoa bean got out, and their monopoly was broken. Other colonial powers established plantations far from the Theobroma’s original homeland – first in Indonesia and the Philippines, and later in West Africa and South America.

Today, Cacao is one of the most significant cash crops for small scale farmers in developing countries. It is worth about $9.5 billion in world trade. Worldwide, more than 4 million tons of Cacao beans are produced annually, more than half of which are grown in West Africa.

 

Hot Chocolate – a drink of the Avant-Garde

By the middle of the 17th century, ‘chocolate houses’ began to appear, rivalling ‘coffee houses’, as meeting places of the Avant-Garde. By the end of the 17th century, hot chocolate had become so popular that the government thought it worthwhile to impose a tax on it!

When the Dutch Cacao producer, Van Houten, invented a new processing method in 1828, drinking chocolate became even more popular. Unprocessed Cacao beans contain up to 53% of fat, making them hard to digest. Van Houten used a hydraulic press to squeeze out the fat content of Cocoa powder, reducing it to 10–13%. The new, lighter chocolate powder proved even more popular. Better still, the cacao butter was not wasted, but was used to improve the consistency of solid chocolate bars.

 

From Cocoa to Chocolate

Solid chocolates also became ever more popular. They were transformed by an innovation introduced by a Swiss chocolate manufacturer, who came up with the simple, but brilliant idea of adding condensed milk to the cocoa butter blend. This creates the familiar creamy texture of milk chocolate. Today, milk chocolate has become the most popular type of chocolate product, and the Swiss are the world leaders in this category. And, they are also world leaders in consumption, with an annual equivalent of 5.5 kg of cocoa beans per capita.

During much of the 19th century, chocolate enjoyed the status of a magical panacea. It was believed to cure just about any ailment. This notion seems a little exaggerated, but Cacao does have some interesting medicinal properties. We will explore these in next week’s post.

Further resources:

International Cocoa organization icco

International Fairtrade / Cocoa

And if you are looking for some delicious AND ethical chocolate, check out my friend Jennifer’s Sombra Buena chocolate.

 

 

Imbolc Awakenings

Imbolc Awakenings

Imbolc, the return of the light

Winter is still with us, although is now entering a moody phase. One day it is frosty, stormy, and inhospitable, and a couple of days later the sun pops out to tease us. But there is one sure sign that things are beginning to shift, ever so slightly – the days are beginning to get noticeably longer again.

Imbolc is the season of the light maiden Brighid, a virginal Goddess, who appears to us as the returning light. As the sun climbs just a tad higher in the sky, it adds a few minutes of light to each passing day.

Nevertheless, it is still the middle of winter. But, if you look carefully, the buds are beginning to swell. Some precocious little flowers defy all the odds. Some particularly perky ones are pushing their way through the snow, or old leaves:  snowdrops, winter aconite or dwarf crested irises are among the earliest and bravest. Unmistakably, the life force deep within the earth is stirring. Last season’s seeds are preparing to germinate. The wheel of the year is turning, and the sap is rising once more.

Purification and Fasting

Imbolc, or ‘Candlemas’ in Christian terminology, is the festival of growing light, of cleansing, and purification. It prepares us for Lent, the time of abstinence and fasting intended to purify body and soul.

In the past, fasting was a way of cleansing the body of the residues of heavy winter foods. Spiritually, it is an act of mindfulness and a way to prepare the body and mind for the spring and a new cycle of growth.

Envisioning the future

Imbolc is a time for visualizing in your mind’s eye the possibilities that lie ahead. Some people use divination, others use affirmations. Take some time out to prepare yourself for the challenges and opportunities yet to come. Reflect on your strengths and weaknesses, on good and bad habits, and make a commitment to your soul’s journey.

What kind of nourishment does your soul need? What are your intentions and purpose? How do you want to give back to life?  Are you walking your talk?

Imbolc is a good time to charge the seeds with intention and to foster your inner flame. Take care of that light through the dark of the night. Soon the sun will soon rise and grow strong again.

 

Gardening Jobs in February

Gardening Jobs in February

What kind of gardening jobs can there possibly be in February?

Around about the middle of February is the time that I itch to get back into gardening. Granted, it’s early days and there isn’t that much to do – but there are some things that can be done even as early as February.∗

It is still winter, and it has been pretty wild and stormy, yet, I have spotted the first snowdrops and even the first Winter Aconite! They are such a welcome sight – the first tentative signs that spring is on the way. Even though temperatures are far from balmy,  Mother Earth is stirring…

It’s a kind of botanical wake-up call. Suddenly, I feel restless, itching to do some gardening. But where to start, and what to do?

Crocus

(Crocus vernus)

The spring crocus is one of the most cherished spring flowers. Its flowers come in many different colors and to me, they are reminiscent of Easter Eggs – although Easter is still a long way away. It is the shape of the balloon-like flowers that create this association in my mind. Like the other early flowering plants, it too makes the most of dry sunny weather, to attract early pollinators, but close their flowers to protect their delicate parts as soon as cold or rainy weather is on the way.

Winter Aconite

(Eranthis hyemalis)

Like miniature suns, these golden stars warm the heart in early spring. Daringly, they open up fully to the first warming rays of the sun. But they are not stupid. As soon as the sky clouds over, they fold up their petals to keep their stamens and stigma protected and warm. While heart-warming and pretty to behold, it is good to remember that this is a Ranunculus species and all of its parts are poisonous.

Cyclamen

(Cyclamen coum)

Cyclamens are so cute! Their pink little flowers remind me of piglets, with the snout pointing down and their ears (petals) flying in the wind, so to speak. The dainty flowers appear to be ‘inside-out’, seemingly exposing their pollinating parts. But that isn’t actually the case. Their delicate stamens and sepals are sheltered inside the ‘snout’, which forms a tubular structure that protects them against the elements. 

Snowdrops

(Galanthus nivalis) 

These tender little flowers are the most daring of all! Long before other flowers wake up, this one has sent its spear-like flowers up, even piercing the snow, if necessary. Its bell-like dangles tenuously on the stem, protecting itself from the elements by facing the earth, rather than the sky, its petals sheltering the stamen and stigma. Snowdrops are heralds of hope at a time when winter is still raging. The message is clear. It’s early days yet, but spring IS on the way. Life will return…soon.

Indoor Gardening

 

Start some long-season plants indoors

I live in climate zone 7/8, so gardening starts indoors, in February. My house turns into a potting shed. I am not suggesting you should do the same. Maybe you are better organized. Or, you have a greenhouse or a heated cold frame where you can start the earliest seeds, protected from the cold.

If you live in the Northern Hemisphere, the growing season is limited. To extend it as far as possible, start off long-season plants, like chilli peppers or aubergines, indoors.

All you need are some starter trays and some soil. Sterile starter soil, not too heavy in nutrients, is best. It should be sterile so that your tender seedlings won’t have to compete for nutrients. This is particularly important for slow germinating seeds. Garden centres and DIY stores sell both.

DIY seed trays

The fancy seed trays make things a little easier: they often come with a clear plastic lid to prevent the moisture from evaporating. Sometimes there is even a mechanism to open them without taking the lid off.  But, truth be told, you don’t really need them. It is easy to improvise by recycling your yoghurt pots, other plastic containers or even empty milk cartons with one side removed.

The right time

The rule of thumb is to start warmth-loving long season plants 8-10 weeks before the last expected frost in your area. If you are doing the DIY seed tray route, spray the seed trays regularly with water to the soil moist and cover with cling film. Place the starter trays in a bright, warm spot, and you should see the first seedlings pop up in 7-10 days, on average. Don’t let the seedlings dry out! That would kill them! Once all danger of frost has passed, and soil temperatures have risen to about 15 °C/60 °F, you can begin to harden off your ‘babies’ before transferring them to their permanent spots.

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∗At least if you live in the Northern Hemisphere and are living in a growing zone 7-8. Every climate zone is different, and you may have a microclimate, so take this as general guidelines – there are no guarantees.

You might also be interested in:

Garden Planning

How to plan a garden

Before you plant anything, try to really understand your garden.

Garden Planning for Success

Topiaria Gaudium

There is a strange fever going around. Strangely, it only affects gardeners: ‘Topiaria Gaudium Fever’. It is a special condition marked by high levels of excitement caused by the anticipation of the new gardening season.

what to sow in January

What to Sow in January

Here are some veggies you can sow (indoors or under glass) at the end of January (about 4 weeks before the last expected frost):

Outdoor Gardening Jobs

Once the snow has melted and the soil has dried off, it is time to get busy preparing the beds.

Loosen the soil and get rid of any invasive weeds. (Some may well be edible!) Mix in some fresh compost. Beds that won’t be used immediately should be mulched. Let the soil settle until the temperatures are high enough to transfer your first seedlings or to sow directly into the prepared bed.

Sowing directly into the soil

Sow hardy crops, such as peas, early varieties of radish, parsley, spinach, and carrots, as well as lettuce, and onions sets, directly into the soil. If you are worried about late frosts, start them in a cold frame and wait to transfer them until the soil has warmed to about 15 °C.

Carrots and parsley can be slow to sprout. You might want to start them in a dish of wet sand. Leave the dish in the cold for about a week, then take it indoors, and you should see them sprout pretty quickly. The most important thing to know about sowing carrots and root parsley is that they like loose and even soil. So make sure their permanent spot is well-prepared. You can do this by mixing sand and garden soil and sifting both to create nice light soil.

Potatoes

By the end of February, you can start chitting your spuds. For best results, use seed potatoes. Lay them out in egg cartons on the windowsill, with the side that has the most ‘eyes’ facing up.  Let them sprout for 5-6 weeks, before planting them out.

For less hardy vegetables, it is best to wait until early March.

Happy gardening!

Check out SeedsNow for your organic gardening supplies!

 

Check out these gardening book titles:

Ever heard of Lion’s Mane Mushrooms?

Ever heard of Lion’s Mane Mushrooms?

The Magical Kingdom of Mushrooms

I have always been interested in mushrooms and many years ago started foraging for easily identifiable species. But over the years, it gradually began to dawn on me: mushrooms are a special kind of wonderful.

It is not just the sheer variety of colours, shapes, and sizes that is mind-boggling. Yet, until recently, science put little effort into trying to understand them. Even though they don’t produce chlorophyll, and cannot photosynthesize, they had long been lumped together with plants. As it turns out, fungi have a kingdom all of their own.

We are unaware of fungi because all we see, are their spore-producing fruiting bodies. The much greater part, a vast spreading network of matted fibres called mycelium, is hidden below ground. These fragile strands are all-important for the well-being of Mother Earth. Mycologists are just beginning to realize that we could not exist without them.

Like most people, I considered mushrooms primarily as a category of food. But since I live in Western Europe, the variety available at the market is limited. There are the familiar cardboard mushrooms aka field mushrooms that are available all year round, and a few seasonal species: Oyster mushrooms, Chanterelles, and very occasionally, Porcini mushrooms. And that’s it.

 

Medicinal Mushrooms

 

By chance, I discovered that mushrooms play a much more important role in Southeast Asia, not just as foods but also as medicines.

I knew of Chaga and Shiitake as being used medicinally. Both have a long list of credentials. But I was unaware of the real scope of these mysterious mushroom medicines.

Lion's Mane MushroomMy interest was piqued when I first spotted this really weird looking-mushroom on one of my local mushroom forays. I had never seen anything like it! A whitish-cream colored, shaggy-looking thing that reminded me of a coral, or a miniature cascading stalactite, or a mop. But certainly not of a mushroom. It grew in clumps, each seemingly flowing into the next. I was instantly smitten.

At home, I identified the mystery mushroom as Lion’s Mane, Hericium Erinaceus, an edible mushroom with some remarkable healing properties.

 

So, what can Lion’s Mane Mushroom do?

 

Lion’s Mane is known for its power to enhance cognitive function – all kinds of mental processes, including memory.

As a writer, I spend a lot of time in front of the computer, and in the evening I often felt mentally exhausted. A tired mind is an irritable mind. I found myself overreacting to trivial irritations. Concentration fades after so many hours, and sometimes I just couldn’t stay focused. My go-to stimulants of choice were coffee or chocolate, but that soon backfired when I found that I had a hard time going to sleep.

I tried Vitamin B, which helped, but not enough. When I found out about Lion’s Mane, I had to give it a try. When I started to take 1 capsule of the extract along with a compound vitamin B supplement, I began to notice an effect almost immediately. Now, about three months down the road, I can honestly say, it has changed my life. I only take one capsule instead of the recommended two, together with the B vitamins.

My mental stamina has improved significantly without any kind of side effects. There is no caffeine-type ‘buzz’, no trouble going to sleep, no signs of exhaustion. Lion’s Mane seems to just tune the system, so it can operate more smoothly, making me feel more balanced, patient, and capable.

I am sure, everyone around me appreciates it, too.

 

 What does the science say?

I love Lion’s Mane as brain food, but it can potentially do a lot more. Recent studies have mostly been done on animals, but the results are promising. Research has focused on Lion Mane’s effects on neurological conditions such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s Disease, depression, and anxiety – all with preliminary positive results. Lion’s Mane has anti-inflammatory, immune system boosting powers, and it has also shown positive effects on the digestive system.

What’s not to like?

I will write more about these findings in another article. Here, I just wanted to share my personal experience, which has been remarkable. Try it yourself!

Images by Henk Monster, CC BY 3.0  via Wikimedia Commons 

How to Plan a Garden – the basics

How to Plan a Garden – the basics

How to plan a garden – getting started

When I first started to garden, I went about it very haphazardly. I’d sow things here, there, and everywhere and did not pay much attention to what it said on the seed packages.

That’s how you learn – or rather, that is how I learned. I hope you are smarter than that!
Plants have likes and dislikes and different nutritional needs. Some like it cool, others hot, some don’t really care. Some are fussy, and some are persistent – they are all different, and it makes sense to get to know them. So, now I spend a lot more time thinking about the garden, and its needs, as well as mine.

Here are some things to consider:

Climate or Microclimate?

Before you plant anything, try to really understand your garden.

Do you know your growing zone? Or, do you live in a microclimate with weather patterns that don’t match the hardiness index? How much rainfall do you get? Which are the driest months? Have you traced the path of the sun through your garden at different times of the year? Do you know the sunniest and the coldest spots?

Growing zones

You can find out about your local growing zone with a simple google search. Due to climate change, such zoning is no longer completely reliable. Talk to the farmers or neighbours and listen to their observations.

I made my first plot in a south-facing spot, but later realized it was actually the coldest part of the garden. It lies lower than the rest of the garden and forms a dip where all the cold air collects.
Climate change has shortened our winters and made them milder. But we often get a late frost, even if the weather had been warm and spring-like for weeks.

Soil

Do you know what kind of soil you have? What is the pH level? Is it loamy or does it drain freely?
Plants don’t like wet feet. If you want to grow nutritious vegetables, concentrate on optimizing the soil. That alone will have a huge impact on your harvest.

Once you know your basic perimeters, it is time to choose your seeds. Part of the excitement of growing your own food is that you can experiment with unusual varieties. But always make sure, your local conditions match their requirements.

Friends or Foe

Certain species don’t like to grow next to each other, while others are friends. If you take the time to pay attention to their preferences, you will end up with a much happier garden. (I will write a separate post about this topic).

Getting the most out of the available space

Some plants mature quickly, while others take a long time to grow. But you can make the most out of your limited space by using a technique called ‘intercropping’.

Intercropping simply means sowing fast-growing crops like radishes among rows of slow-growing veggies.

 

 

Also see Gardening Jobs for January

 

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